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Create your flash banner online in 5 step دوستدار ستاره - حساب جمل

حساب جمل

نویسنده :حسین رحمتی
تاریخ:جمعه 7 شهریور 1393-12:15 ب.ظ





















صور هشتگانه حروف جُمل که با نام اولین صورت (ابجد) معروف است. ترتیب حروف صامت یا بی‌صدا در این نسق همان ترتیب عبریآرامی است و این امر مؤید آن است که عرب، الفبای خود را از آنان و از طریق نبطیان اقتباس کرده‌است.[۱]

حروف اَبجَد شیوه‌ای برای مرتب‌سازی حروف زبان عربی است که بر پایه الفبای اولیه خط فنیقی مرتب شده‌اند. گاهی از این شیوه در شماره‌گذاری موارد یا صفحات به کار می‌رود.

حروف ابجد به این شرحند: «الف، ب، ج، د، ه، و، ز، ح، ط، ی، ک، ل، م، ن، س، ع، ف، ص، ق، ر، ش، ت، ث، خ، ذ، ض، ظ، غ». و اعداد ۱ تا ۱۰۰۰ به بیست و هشت حرف تقسیم شده‌است.

برای آسانی ازبر کردن ترتیب این حروف، هر چندتا حرف پیاپی به شکل واژه در آمده و تلفظ می‌شوند. این واژه‌ها عبارت‌اند از: «اَبْجَدْ - هَوََّزْ - حُطّی - کَلَمَنْ - سَعْفَصْ - قَرَشَتْ - ثَخَِّذْ - ضَظِغْ»[۲] از الفبای ابجد برای متناظر کردن اعداد و واژه‌ها نیز استفاده می‌شود. به این ترتیب که برای هر حرف واژه‌ای که بخواهند به عدد تبدیلش کنند، عدد متناظر را از جدول زیر برمی‌دارند و اعداد به دست‌آمده را جمع می‌زنند. برای نمونه در این روش، واژهٔ «علی» برابر با «۱۱۰» می‌شود همچنین «یاعلی» برابر با ۱۲۱ می‌باشد.

همزه (أ) و الف (ا) هر یک را به عدد ۱ حساب می‌کنند و حروفاتی که به واسطه تشدید مکرر است، یک حرف محاسبه می‌شوند؛ مثلاً کلمه فَعّال را ۱۸۱ می‌گیرند؛ چون ف ۸۰، ع ۷۰، ا ۱ و ل ۳۰ است. استثنائاً لام مشدد کلمه الله را دو حرف حساب می‌کنند. بنا بر این اللّه ۶۶ می‌شود؛ چون ا ۱، ل ۳۰، ل ۳۰ و ه ۵ است. به همین جهت اللّه را در کتابت با تشدید نمی‌نویسند؛ چون لام مکرر است و تشدید ندارد. حساب کلماتی همچون اله و رحمن صورت مکتوب است؛ نه ملفوظ (الاه و رحمان). از این رو اله عدد ۳۶ خواهد بود و رحمن ۲۹۸.[۳]

برخی افراد برای این شماره‌ها ویژگیهای فراطبیعی قائلند.


الف) صفحه‌های مقدمهٔ بعضی از کتاب‌ها را با این عددها شماره گذاری می‌کنند.

ب) تاریخ وقایع مهم را با ترکیب حروف ابجد به صورت یک کلمه یا یک عبارت یا یک جملهٔ معنی دار یا شعر در می‌آورند که به خاطر سپردن آن کلمه یا عبارت یا آن جمله یا شعر، تاریخ مزبور را حساب می‌کنند.

ج) در موسیقی پس از اسلام، در ثبت اصوات و دساتین از حروف ابجد استفاده شده‌است. برای نمونه نغمه‌های دستگاه شور با حروف ابجد عبارت بوده‌اند از: «یح یه یب ی ح ه ج ا» و فاصله‌ها و ابعاد آن‌ها: «ط ط ج‍ ج‍ ط ج‍ ج» که در موسیقی امروز به ترتیب نت‌های سل، لاکرن، سی بمل، دو، ر، می‌بمل، فا و سل را تشکیل می‌دهند.[۴]

د) گاهی در نوشتن، برای جدا کردن مطالب مختلف از یکدیگر، آنها را با حروف ابجد مشخص می‌کنند. مثلاً در همین‌جا برای جدا کردن کاربردهای حروف ابجد، آنها را با حروف الف، ب، ج و … مشخص کردیم.

ارزش حروف

نوشتار اصلی: حساب جمل

ارزش حروف ابجد کبیر به شرح زیر هستند:

ارزش حرف نام یونیکد معادل
لاتین
۱ ا ʾalif ʾ / ā
۲ ب bāʾ b
۳ ج jīm j
۴ د dāl d
۵ ه hāʾ h
۶ و wāw w / ū
۷ ز zayn / zāy z
۸ ح ḥāʾ
۹ ط ṭāʾ
       
ارزش حرف نام یونیکد معادل
لاتین
۱۰ ی yāʾ y / ī
۲۰ ک kāf k
۳۰ ل lām l
۴۰ م mīm m
۵۰ ن nūn n
۶۰ س sīn s
۷۰ ع ʿayn ʿ
۸۰ ف fāʾ f
۹۰ ص ṣād
       
ارزش حرف نام‌یونیکد معادل
لاتین
۱۰۰ ق qāf q
۲۰۰ ر rāʾ r
۳۰۰ ش šīn š
۴۰۰ ت tāʾ t
۵۰۰ ث ṯāʾ
۶۰۰ خ ḫāʾ
۷۰۰ ذ ḏāl
۸۰۰ ض ḍād
۹۰۰ ظ ẓāʾ
۱۰۰۰ غ ġayn ġ

ترتیب حروف در ابجدها به نسبت زبان تفاوت دارند به عنوان مثال در زبان فارسی گ=۲۰ چ=۳ پ=۲ ژ=۷ است.

پانویس

  1. فرهنگ فارسی، محمد معین، انتشارات امیر کبیر، تهران، ۱۳۷۵
  2. مصاحب، غلامحسین، و دیگران. دایرةالمعارف فارسی. مدخل «ابجد». ص ۵.
  3. مهر تابان، یادنامه و مصاحبات تلمیذ و علامه (سید محمدحسین طباطبائی)، سید محمدحسین حسینی طهرانی، مشهد، ۱۴۲۱ ق.
  4. ستایشگر، مهدی. واژه نامهٔ موسیقی ایران زمین جلد اوّل. چاپ دوّم. تهران: اطلاعات، ۱۳۸۱. ص۳۷۵. ISBN 964-423-305-0






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